补充维他命D和钙的新建议

来源: 2010-11-30 11:10:43 [] [博客] [旧帖] [给我悄悄话] 本文已被阅读: 次 (9948 bytes)
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New Vitamin D and Calcium Recommendations: Experts Weigh In

What experts say about the Institute of Medicine's new recommendations for vitamin D and calcium.

The Institute of Medicine has set new dietary intake levels for vitamin D and calcium for their role in bone health -- but says more research is needed to confirm other possible health benefits associated with these nutrients.

Over the last 10 years, there has been increasing interest in the health benefits of vitamin D. It’s been called the miracle vitamin, as numerous studies suggest the importance of vitamin D goes beyond bone health and may reduce the risk for cancer, heart disease, stroke, diabetes, autoimmune diseases, and more.

“Everyone wants vitamin D to be the new magic bullet to prevent all kinds of chronic disease, but the evidence is inconsistent and inconclusive at this time to warrant levels beyond our recommendations,” says Harvard’s JoAnn Manson, PhD, MD, and member of the IOM vitamin D and calcium committee.

The committee based its recommendations on a rigorous and thorough review of nearly 1,000 published studies. They were charged to evaluate current data and consider chronic disease implications and outcomes for disease prevention.

New Recommendations for Vitamin D, Calcium

The IOM set the following recommendations for vitamin D:

  • Ages 1-70: 600 international units (IUs) per day. Older than 71: 800 IUs. The IOM previously said 200 IUs was adequate for people aged 50 and younger, 400 IU for people aged 51-70, and 600 IUs for people older than 70. 
  • The tolerable upper limit (UL) is 4000 IUs for ages 9 and above (up from 2000 IU in the IOM's previous guidance).

The IOM's calcium recommendations, based on age, range from 700 to 1300 milligrams (mg) daily with a tolerable upper limit range of 1000-3000 mg.

Experts Respond to Vitamin D Safe Upper Limit

University of Cincinnati bone health expert Nelson Watts, MD applauds the establishing of 4000 IUs as the safe upper limit.

Robert Heaney, MD, a vitamin D researcher and Creighton University professor, agrees but would like to see it even higher. 

“I am delighted the upper limit for vitamin D has been doubled to 4000 IUs per day, although this is a conservative level, considering the body of scientific evidence indicating it should be 10,000 IUs," Heaney says. "However, few people need more than 4000 IUs, which will meet the needs of most healthy people, give physicians confidence to recommend supplementation, and allow research at higher vitamin D levels."

In his book, The Vitamin D Solution, Michael Holick, PhD, MD, author and vitamin D researcher, recommends an upper limit of 10,000 IUs for adults and 5,000 IUs for children.

Keep in mind that the upper limit is not the goal for taking supplements or evaluating food labels but is set to establish the safe upper limit.

Vitamin D Deficiency Overestimated?

Many adults and children were thought to have inadequate levels of vitamin D. But Manson says the problem may be confusion about the definition of adequacy and deficiency.

“It is our opinion that vitamin D deficiency is not as widespread as reported because laboratories across the country are using different cut points that overestimate the number of people with vitamin D deficiency,” Manson says.

The only way to know if you are getting enough vitamin D is to have your blood level checked.

All of the experts interviewed for this story were disappointed the committee did not assess the merit of the huge body of vitamin D evidence beyond bone health.

Sunlight and Supplements

The best food sources naturally rich in vitamin D are cod or fish liver oils, salmon, tuna, sardines, mackerel, and shrimp. Vitamin D is also found in egg yolks, beef liver, and mushrooms. Fortified foods -- such as milk, some yogurts, cereals, and orange juices -- also provide vitamin D.

Another option to increase vitamin D levels is to take dietary supplements to fill in the nutritional gaps; however, experts say to be careful.

“Manufacturers are putting more vitamin D in multivitamins and there are some single 5000 IUs vitamin D supplements that exceed the safe upper limit,” Watts says.

“Buy from reputable companies and don’t exceed the safe upper limit unless you are under a physician's care,” Holick says. He recommends children take 1000 IU and teenagers and adults 2000-3000 IUs supplements daily.

The body makes vitamin D when exposed to sunlight. But the IOM committee didn't factor that into the recommendations, because many factors (including, skin color, and geographic location) affect that process. Nor did the committee make any recommendations regarding supplements.

 “Individuals need to discuss supplementation with their health care provider,” Manson says.

 

相关链接:

Most getting enough calcium, vitamin D, report says - USATODAY.com

New Vitamin D and Calcium Recommendations

CRN Responds To IOM’s Review Of Calcium, Vitamin D ...

 

 

所有跟帖: 

刚才开车的时候听到了相关的健康新闻,一位大夫推荐成年人每天吃3000单位的维生素D -dudaan- 给 dudaan 发送悄悄话 dudaan 的博客首页 dudaan 的个人群组 (73 bytes) () 11/30/2010 postreply 12:53:32

"健康新闻" 只是报道有关健康的新消息, 新说法, .....观点不一定经得起检验, 听听就好. -jck6- 给 jck6 发送悄悄话 jck6 的博客首页 jck6 的个人群组 (0 bytes) () 11/30/2010 postreply 13:26:34

当然,不过还是有很多人会多吃,美国去年的维生素D销量增加了82%,是2001年的10倍 -dudaan- 给 dudaan 发送悄悄话 dudaan 的博客首页 dudaan 的个人群组 (0 bytes) () 11/30/2010 postreply 13:46:18

支持!化学合成的supplements,反对身体有害的报道也层出不穷。 -华灜- 给 华灜 发送悄悄话 华灜 的博客首页 华灜 的个人群组 (0 bytes) () 11/30/2010 postreply 15:13:16

单一的大量吃某种维生素总觉得不妥,不知有没有确凿的科学实验证据和病例? -ooopsss- 给 ooopsss 发送悄悄话 ooopsss 的个人群组 (0 bytes) () 11/30/2010 postreply 14:01:03

有是有一些,但不能排除将来又出反例。 -viewfinder- 给 viewfinder 发送悄悄话 viewfinder 的博客首页 viewfinder 的个人群组 (0 bytes) () 11/30/2010 postreply 14:28:32

是比较tricky,VD缺乏症肯定有害健康,但到底多大剂量最好? -viewfinder- 给 viewfinder 发送悄悄话 viewfinder 的博客首页 viewfinder 的个人群组 (1476 bytes) () 11/30/2010 postreply 18:00:58

两年多前我的家庭医生就让我补充维他命D了,去年还不忘提醒我。 -TBz- 给 TBz 发送悄悄话 TBz 的博客首页 TBz 的个人群组 (59 bytes) () 11/30/2010 postreply 16:43:55

吃了有什么变化吗? -dudaan- 给 dudaan 发送悄悄话 dudaan 的博客首页 dudaan 的个人群组 (0 bytes) () 11/30/2010 postreply 16:48:44

坦率地说,没有感觉。 -TBz- 给 TBz 发送悄悄话 TBz 的博客首页 TBz 的个人群组 (223 bytes) () 11/30/2010 postreply 17:15:21

谢谢,我有两个朋友验血后医生都让吃大剂量的维生素D -dudaan- 给 dudaan 发送悄悄话 dudaan 的博客首页 dudaan 的个人群组 (0 bytes) () 11/30/2010 postreply 17:23:39

富含维生素D的食品有马哈鱼,沙丁鱼,虾等 -dudaan- 给 dudaan 发送悄悄话 dudaan 的博客首页 dudaan 的个人群组 (0 bytes) () 11/30/2010 postreply 16:53:01

非动物性食品中含维生素D最多的是香菇 -dudaan- 给 dudaan 发送悄悄话 dudaan 的博客首页 dudaan 的个人群组 (0 bytes) () 11/30/2010 postreply 16:55:21

最便宜最方便的是晒太阳,但晒多了也有问题 -dudaan- 给 dudaan 发送悄悄话 dudaan 的博客首页 dudaan 的个人群组 (0 bytes) () 11/30/2010 postreply 17:10:17

是啊,老一代人都说多晒太阳身体好,现在皮肤科医生都建议防晒 -viewfinder- 给 viewfinder 发送悄悄话 viewfinder 的博客首页 viewfinder 的个人群组 (0 bytes) () 11/30/2010 postreply 17:56:52

外加运动。因 -华灜- 给 华灜 发送悄悄话 华灜 的博客首页 华灜 的个人群组 (553 bytes) () 11/30/2010 postreply 18:01:06

同意!运动对骨骼健康的益处是什么都不能代替的。 -viewfinder- 给 viewfinder 发送悄悄话 viewfinder 的博客首页 viewfinder 的个人群组 (0 bytes) () 11/30/2010 postreply 18:11:01

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