有机鸡蛋 vs 工厂蛋(大型笼养鸡Factory hens)

来源: 2013-11-03 07:02:11 [] [博客] [旧帖] [给我悄悄话] 本文已被阅读: 次 (8405 bytes)
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原文链接:  http://content.time.com/time/health/article/0,8599,2002334,00.html

Organic Eggs: More Expensive, but No Healthier


This year, like every year, has been a busy one for America's chickens. What the birds lack in smarts they make up for in work ethic, laying about 78 billion eggs annually (or 6.5 billion dozen), supplying a $7 billion industry. GM should be doing so well.

Like any other workers, hens turn out economy, premium and luxury products — known as factory, cage-free and organic eggs — and consumers pay accordingly. A recent survey conducted in one random city — Athens, Ga. — found factory eggs going for $1.69 per dozen, cage-free for $2.99 to $3.59, and organic for $3.99 to a whopping $5.38.


But it's worth it to pay more because you're getting a healthier product, right? Wrong. Most of the time, according to a just-released study by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), the eggs are indistinguishable. When there is a difference, it's often the factory eggs that are safer. (美国农业部研究发现,养鸡场大规模饲养的鸡下的蛋、散养鸡下的蛋和所谓有机鸡蛋并无区别,前者还更安全更便宜。)

The study, led by food technologist Deana Jones, was not designed to explore the question of which egg-laying conditions are best for the hens themselves — simply because there is no question. Factory hens are confined in what are known as battery cages, which leave them crowded and all but immobilized, reduced to little more than egg-laying machines. Free-range and organic chickens have different degrees of freedom to move and are raised on varying levels of higher-quality feed. There's no question what kind of life the birds prefer.

What Jones and her colleagues wanted to learn is whether a happy hen in fact produces a better product. To do that, they relied principally on something known as the Haugh unit — a highly specialized egg-quality metric developed by food technologist Raymond Haugh in 1937. The white of an egg is where all its protein is found; it's made of both thin albumen (薄白蛋白) — the watery fluid that runs farthest from the yolk when the egg is cracked into a cold pan — and thick albumen (厚白蛋白) , the more viscous fluid that stays closer to the middle. The greater the amount of thick albumen, the more nutritious the egg (厚白蛋白的含量越高, 鸡蛋的营养价值也越大).

"The Haugh unit factors together the weight of the egg and the thickness of the albumen layer at the center," says Jones. And that number, she found in her study, is not affected a whit by how a hen is raised. "We found no meaningful differences at all," she says. "We sampled eggs from a number of stores and kept getting the same results over and over. For shoppers, the decision comes down to your ethical and moral choices."

That, at least, is all that's involved when it comes to egg nutrition. But what about safety? Don't organic eggs have the edge in terms of antibiotics and other contaminants? Surprisingly, the USDA has not devoted a great deal of study to the antibiotic question, mostly because the drugs are used sparingly in the egg-laying industry — at least compared with the cattle industry, in which even healthy animals are kept dosed to prevent infections.

"There's just very little research I've seen on this," says USDA immunologist and microbiologist Peter Holt. "Hens are not routinely treated with antibiotics, though they may be if they're sick." In those cases, the eggs the birds produce lose their organic designation temporarily, until the drugs have cleared their systems.

The bigger problem comes with the environmental contaminants, and here the factory eggs have the edge. Research in both the U.S. and the E.U. has shown that free-range chickens have higher levels of PCBs, simply because they get out more and can peck almost anywhere. "There was a study in California of a free-range or organic farm with a wood-processing facility nearby," says Holt. "The chickens there had 100 times the PCB level of battery-cage chickens." A Brazilian study found something similar with DDT, even though the pesticide, which is slow to degrade, hadn't been used in the area in nine years. "You really have to know the history of the land before you can be sure it's safe," Holt says.

Another mistake some health-conscious consumers make — though it doesn't take the new USDA study to reveal it — is believing that the color of an egg makes a difference and that brown shells are somehow better than white ones. They're not. Color is determined entirely by the breed of chicken laying it, and the fact that brown eggs often cost a little more has nothing to do with quality. "It simply takes more feed to get a brown-shell species to lay," says Jones. "You're paying that additional production cost." As in any other industry, when the workers get a raise — even if it's chickenfeed — you'll see it on the price tag.


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有个很重要的问题没说:激素。我养鸡,不给添加激素的食料,产蛋很少,人家给加了激素 的,每天一个鸡蛋 -我爱栀子花- 给 我爱栀子花 发送悄悄话 我爱栀子花 的博客首页 我爱栀子花 的个人群组 (0 bytes) () 11/03/2013 postreply 07:28:56

中国的情况不清楚.养鸡使用激素在美国是非法的: -闽姑- 给 闽姑 发送悄悄话 闽姑 的博客首页 闽姑 的个人群组 (2231 bytes) () 11/03/2013 postreply 08:00:59

很多人都相信走地鸡蛋比工厂蛋好吃,我怎么吃不出来?还有说国内的猪肉比这里的好吃 -tiger00- 给 tiger00 发送悄悄话 tiger00 的博客首页 tiger00 的个人群组 (62 bytes) () 11/03/2013 postreply 08:50:02

一项单盲试验:走地鸡蛋和工厂蛋口感无差别. -闽姑- 给 闽姑 发送悄悄话 闽姑 的博客首页 闽姑 的个人群组 (583 bytes) () 11/03/2013 postreply 09:04:03

阉过会好吃些?有意思。谢谢你的链接。 -tiger00- 给 tiger00 发送悄悄话 tiger00 的博客首页 tiger00 的个人群组 (0 bytes) () 11/03/2013 postreply 09:10:26

是阉割过而不是用调料的那种腌~~ -闽姑- 给 闽姑 发送悄悄话 闽姑 的博客首页 闽姑 的个人群组 (0 bytes) () 11/03/2013 postreply 09:20:03

白煮煮我能吃出有机无机蛋,Halal的肉是腥味少,可惜没猪肉 -布谷- 给 布谷 发送悄悄话 布谷 的个人群组 (0 bytes) () 11/03/2013 postreply 10:45:15

走地鸡比工厂鸡香,如此推理鸡蛋也如此 -随意- 给 随意 发送悄悄话 随意 的博客首页 随意 的个人群组 (0 bytes) () 11/03/2013 postreply 10:28:27

I buy free-range eggs mostly because of animal welfare concerns. -nightrose- 给 nightrose 发送悄悄话 nightrose 的博客首页 nightrose 的个人群组 (0 bytes) () 11/03/2013 postreply 11:28:09

回复:有机鸡蛋 vs 工厂蛋(大型笼养鸡Factory hens) -7grizzly- 给 7grizzly 发送悄悄话 7grizzly 的博客首页 7grizzly 的个人群组 (752 bytes) () 11/03/2013 postreply 12:01:22

我养鸡,觉得鸡的蛋黄有差别。超市买的蛋黄发白,自己养的, -kisssnowman- 给 kisssnowman 发送悄悄话 kisssnowman 的博客首页 kisssnowman 的个人群组 (198 bytes) () 11/03/2013 postreply 14:05:14

蛋黄颜色和饲料有关:饲料中米放多了就白、玉米等色素物多了就黄. -闽姑- 给 闽姑 发送悄悄话 闽姑 的博客首页 闽姑 的个人群组 (173 bytes) () 11/03/2013 postreply 14:35:15

我也养鸡。鸡蛋的味道和超市买的有很明显的区别 -sleepycat- 给 sleepycat 发送悄悄话 sleepycat 的个人群组 (247 bytes) () 11/03/2013 postreply 18:25:14

鸡不会说话,究竟吃什么食料,只有制造鸡食的人知道。我们吃了什么,也只能听天由命 -咖啡馆的倩影- 给 咖啡馆的倩影 发送悄悄话 咖啡馆的倩影 的博客首页 咖啡馆的倩影 的个人群组 (0 bytes) () 11/03/2013 postreply 15:11:42

人口如此多,粮食蔬果肉类,按照自然生长规律,根本供不上,只有靠激素,多产价廉 -咖啡馆的倩影- 给 咖啡馆的倩影 发送悄悄话 咖啡馆的倩影 的博客首页 咖啡馆的倩影 的个人群组 (0 bytes) () 11/03/2013 postreply 15:16:18

this is a fake science article: they did not really compare the -rainman2- 给 rainman2 发送悄悄话 rainman2 的博客首页 rainman2 的个人群组 (0 bytes) () 11/03/2013 postreply 15:17:41

回复:this is a fake science article: they did not really compare t -rainman2- 给 rainman2 发送悄悄话 rainman2 的博客首页 rainman2 的个人群组 (192 bytes) () 11/03/2013 postreply 15:20:00

Agree. -2441- 给 2441 发送悄悄话 2441 的博客首页 2441 的个人群组 (0 bytes) () 11/03/2013 postreply 19:00:53

这研究可能是梦山督花钱资助的。谁爱信谁信,反正我是不信。我吃我自己养的鸡下的蛋!起码我知道我给它们吃了什么! -云素- 给 云素 发送悄悄话 云素 的博客首页 云素 的个人群组 (0 bytes) () 11/03/2013 postreply 17:44:26

阉割过的公鸡,肉味鲜美无比!以前到了春天,有沿街上门“动手术”的,也算是太监鸡。 -咖啡馆的倩影- 给 咖啡馆的倩影 发送悄悄话 咖啡馆的倩影 的博客首页 咖啡馆的倩影 的个人群组 (0 bytes) () 11/03/2013 postreply 15:21:19

反正外面野生的蛋,我可不敢拿回家吃。 -wenxue22- 给 wenxue22 发送悄悄话 wenxue22 的个人群组 (195 bytes) () 11/03/2013 postreply 15:31:50

支持买free range的鸡蛋。不光是营养的问题,还牵涉到动物被残酷地对待问题。 -maggieb- 给 maggieb 发送悄悄话 maggieb 的个人群组 (123 bytes) () 11/03/2013 postreply 18:23:23

dingdingding! -niersi- 给 niersi 发送悄悄话 niersi 的博客首页 niersi 的个人群组 (0 bytes) () 11/06/2013 postreply 16:27:44

无论”专家”咋论证,有机的肯定更健康。当然,有机的是否资格是另外回事。 -2441- 给 2441 发送悄悄话 2441 的博客首页 2441 的个人群组 (0 bytes) () 11/03/2013 postreply 18:58:40

回复:有机鸡蛋 vs 工厂蛋(大型笼养鸡Factory hens) -小萌芽- 给 小萌芽 发送悄悄话 小萌芽 的个人群组 (0 bytes) () 11/04/2013 postreply 07:59:01

买了一盒老墨养的鸡生的蛋,打了后全是“双黄蛋”。是不是畏了太多激素的原因? -校团委- 给 校团委 发送悄悄话 校团委 的个人群组 (0 bytes) () 11/04/2013 postreply 10:45:20

原文下面的好几个评论讲到该研究没有比较其他营养成分, -baby_baby- 给 baby_baby 发送悄悄话 baby_baby 的个人群组 (38 bytes) () 11/05/2013 postreply 14:06:18

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