CDC和儿科协会联合发布限制"上感"使用抗菌素新指南

来源: 2013-11-19 20:08:17 [] [博客] [旧帖] [给我悄悄话] 本文已被阅读: 次 (8542 bytes)

美国疾病控制中CDC和儿科协会AAP今天联合发布了新的上感抗菌素使用指南,呼吁广大儿科医生慎用少用抗菌素。秋冬季节,孩子容易感冒。请咨询医生,不要随便自用从中国带来的抗生素或要求医生给开抗生素。也请看以下咽痛耳痛、流鼻水咳嗽等的处理措施。

来源: CDC, AAP Issue New Guidelines Limiting Antibiotic Use in Children

The US Centers for Disease Control (CDC) is urging pediatricians to limit use of antibiotics in children to when, you know, antibiotics will actually be helpful. (C’mon, that’s just crazy talk.)

The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) has simultaneously released a report that helps pediatricians identify when antibiotics will be helpful for respiratory infections.

Both the CDC and the AAP note that children’s respiratory infections are most often caused by viruses, which won’t be helped by antibiotics. The CDC says that every year as many as 10 million U.S. children risk side effects from antibiotic prescriptions that are unlikely to help their upper respiratory conditions. For example, antibiotics will not help colds and flu, most coughs and bronchitis, sore throat (other than strep throat), and runny noses.

Over-use of antibiotics can lead to antibiotic resistance, which occurs when bacteria evolve and are able to outsmart antibiotics, making even common infections difficult to treat. The CDC’s most recent data shows that more than 2 million Americans get infections each year that are resistant to antibiotics. An estimated 23,000 Americans die each year from antibiotic-resistant infections.

“Our medicine cabinet is nearly empty of antibiotics to treat some infections,” said CDC Director Tom Frieden, M.D., M.P.H. “If doctors prescribe antibiotics carefully and patients take them as prescribed, we can preserve these lifesaving drugs and avoid entering a post-antibiotic era.”

The CDC and AAP hope that by providing detailed clinical criteria to help physicians distinguish between viral and bacterial upper respiratory tract infections, children will receive more effective care. At the same time, it will help limit antibiotic prescriptions, giving bacteria fewer chances to become resistant and lowering children’s risk of side effects.

“Many people have the misconception that since antibiotics are commonly used that they are harmless,” says Dr. Lauri Hicks, a coauthor of the report and medical director of CDC’s Get Smart: Know When Antibiotics Work program. “Taking antibiotics when you have a virus can do more harm than good.”

Dr. Hicks said that the harm can come in the form of antibiotic side effects for the individual child, and promoting the development of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, which can then spread through a community.

So what can a parent to do help their child feel better when antibiotics won’t help? The CDC offers plenty of tips for parents on treating the symptoms of viral illnesses like sore throats and runny noses.

Sore Throat(咽痛):

  • Soothe a sore throat with ice chips, sore throat spray, or lozenges (but don’t give lozenges to young children as they can present a choking hazard).
  • Use a clean humidifier or cool mist vaporizer.
  • Ask your pediatrician if it’s appropriate to give your child acetaminophen, ibuprofen, or naproxen to relieve pain or fever. (Read more here about safe use of fever and pain relievers in children.

Ear Pain(耳痛):

  • Put a warm moist cloth over the ear that hurts.
  • Ask your pediatrician if it’s appropriate to give your child acetaminophen, ibuprofen, or naproxen to relieve pain or fever. (Read more here about safe use of fever and pain relievers in children.)

Runny Nose(流鼻水):

  • Use saline nasal spray to help relieve symptoms.
  • Ask your pediatrician if it’s appropriate to give your child a decongestant. (Read more here about kids and decongestants.)

Sinus Pain/Pressure(窦痛/窦压):

  • Put a warm compress over the nose and forehead to help relieve sinus pressure.
  • Breathe in steam from a bowl of hot water or shower.
  • Use saline nasal spray.
  • Ask your pediatrician if it’s appropriate to give your child a decongestant. (Read more here about kids and decongestants.)
  • Ask your pediatrician if it’s appropriate to give your child acetaminophen, ibuprofen, or naproxen to relieve pain or fever. (Read more here about safe use of fever and pain relievers in children.)

Cough(咳嗽):

  • Use a clean humidifier or cool mist vaporizer.
  • Breathe in steam from a bowl of hot water or shower.

Remember, over-the-counter (OTC) cough and cold medications are not recommended for children under the age of four. Parents should consult with their pediatrician before using any OTC cough and cold medicine in kids age four and up, because overuse and misuse of OTC cough and cold medicines in children can result in serious and potentially life-threatening side effects.

孩子感冒了请咨询医生,不要随便自用从中国带来的抗生素或要求医生开抗生素。






 

所有跟帖: 

国内用的也太滥了 -Manymore- 给 Manymore 发送悄悄话 Manymore 的博客首页 Manymore 的个人群组 (0 bytes) () 11/20/2013 postreply 08:58:32

国内养成的滥用习惯。还以为是为孩子好,其实是害了孩子。 -晓雨1- 给 晓雨1 发送悄悄话 晓雨1 的博客首页 晓雨1 的个人群组 (6 bytes) () 11/20/2013 postreply 19:41:08

动不动就输液也是一乱象.奇怪的是病人也常要求输液. -闽姑- 给 闽姑 发送悄悄话 闽姑 的博客首页 闽姑 的个人群组 (0 bytes) () 11/20/2013 postreply 20:02:20

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