The question remains: what sort of liquid was this Health beer by Johann Hoff? Not surprisingly, the recipe of this ‘Malt Extract’ was supposed to be a well-kept secret. However, already in 1861, the year before it reached the Dutch market, the German periodical Pharmaceutische Centralhalle researched the beer. The outcome? It was an ordinary brown beer, in which the makers had dissolved some laxative(!), buckthorn bark (as a colorant) and so-called water clover (as a bittering agent). The researchers calculated that the cost of producing it came at 9 cents, while Hoff sold it at five times as much.