莎士比亚的香脂系列:宫斗戏总是相似的

来源: 2021-07-20 08:59:45 [] [博客] [旧帖] [给我悄悄话] 本文已被阅读: 次 (15219 bytes)

第五处:《亨利四世》第二部(2nd Henry IV)第四幕第五场:哈利王子来到病房,发现重病昏睡在床的亨利四世没有任何呼吸的迹象,以为他过世了。他伤心地拿起摆在父亲枕边的王冠,戴在自己的头上,然后悄悄退出了房间。亨利四世醒来,发现王冠不见了,得知儿子哈利曾经来过,立刻猜到王冠被儿子拿走了,不由恼羞成怒,派人将儿子唤来。哈利王子说:“我以为不会听见您再次说话。”(I never thought to hear you speak again.)

亨利四世狠狠地训斥儿子:“你有那种想法,哈利,是因为你心存着那样的愿望。在你眼里我活得太久,让你厌倦了。你是否如此贪恋我的空位,所以在时机尚未成熟之前,就要攫取王权的荣耀?哦,愚蠢的年轻人,你追寻的尊荣会把你压垮的。不妨稍微再等一会儿,因为我的荣耀就像一丝微风托住的云,很快会坠落。我的白昼已经昏暗了,你所偷去的东西,再过几个小时后就名正言顺地归属于你。你在我临死的时候,确证了我的期望。你平生的所作所为都可以表明你根本不爱我,你又在我临终之际证实了你的不孝。你的思想里藏着一千柄匕首,你把它们在你那石块一般的心上磨得锋利,希望在我生命最后的半小时谋刺我。嘿!你难道不能再忍受我半小时吗?那么你去亲自为我挖一座坟墓吧,让欢快的钟声响彻你的耳际,报知你加冕的喜讯,而不是我崩逝的噩耗。让应该洒在我的灵车上的所有眼泪,成为涂抹你的头顶的香膏。把我和被遗忘的尘土混合在一起,把那给你生命的人丢与蛆虫吧。撤销我的官员,废除我的法令,因为一个嘲笑权威的时代到来了。亨利五世已经加冕为王!起来吧,浮华虚荣!没落吧,皇家威严!你们所有这些聪明睿智的臣子,赶紧滚吧!四方游手好闲的蠢材要聚集在英国的宫廷里了!邻邦啊,现在把你们的败类清除出来吧。你们有没有通宵谩骂酗酒、跳舞狂欢、杀人越货、无恶不作的流氓?开心起来吧,他不会再来烦恼你们了。英国将要给他的三倍罪恶镀上双层金,英国将要给他官位和荣耀,因为第五代的哈利将要松开奢淫这条野狗的口套,让它把利齿咬进每个无辜者的肌肉里。哦,我的疮痍未息的可怜的王国!我竭尽全力还不能平定你的祸乱。当祸乱笼罩着你时,你又该怎么办呢?哦,你将要再次变成一片残狼遍地的荒野,这里曾是它们的故居。”

(Thy wish was father, Harry, to that thought.

I stay too long by thee; I weary thee.

Dost thou so hunger for mine empty chair

That thou wilt needs invest thee with my honors

Before thy hour be ripe? O foolish youth,

Thou seek’st the greatness that will overwhelm thee.

Stay but a little, for my cloud of dignity

Is held from falling with so weak a wind

That it will quickly drop. My day is dim.

Thou hast stol'n that which after some few hours

Were thine without offense, and at my death

Thou hast sealed up my expectation.

Thy life did manifest thou loved’st me not,

And thou wilt have me die assured of it.

Thou hid’st a thousand daggers in thy thoughts,

Which thou hast whetted on thy stony heart

To stab at half an hour of my life.

What, canst thou not forbear me half an hour?

Then get thee gone and dig my grave thyself,

And bid the merry bells ring to thine ear

That thou art crownèd, not that I am dead.

Let all the tears that should bedew my hearse

Be drops of balm to sanctify thy head;

Only compound me with forgotten dust.

Give that which gave thee life unto the worms.

Pluck down my officers, break my decrees,

For now a time is come to mock at form.

Harry the Fifth is crowned. Up, vanity,

Down, royal state, all you sage counsillors, hence,

And to the English court assemble now,

From every region, apes of idleness.

Now, neighbor confines, purge you of your scum.

Have you a ruffian that will swear, drink, dance,

Revel the night, rob, murder, and commit

The oldest sins the newest kind of ways?

Be happy, he will trouble you no more.

England shall double gild his treble guilt.

England shall give him office, honor, might,

For the fifth Harry from curbed license plucks

The muzzle of restraint, and the wild dog

Shall flesh his tooth on every innocent.

O my poor kingdom, sick with civil blows!

When that my care could not withhold thy riots,

What wilt thou do when riot is thy care?

O, thou wilt be a wilderness again,

Peopled with wolves, thy old inhabitants.)

哈利将王冠还给父亲,并下跪请求原谅。他解释说,他刚才误以为父亲驾崩了,于是拿走了王冠。他在另一个房间里责骂王冠,认为是它害死了父亲。他一边咒骂,一边戴上王冠,想试试看王冠是否让他产生了悖逆虚荣的心理。如果事实如此,他愿上帝永远不把它加在自己的头上。尽管作为读者的我并不否认哈利对父亲的热爱,不过他的借口实在有些牵强,难以掩饰他的野心。但亨利四世还是原谅了儿子,语重心长地说出了遗言:统一后的英国必须多多对外发动战争,这是转移国内矛盾的最好方法。

第四幕第五场是一场重头戏,表现了两个主题:生与死,父与子。王冠从生命垂危的父亲手中传给了儿子。老国王些许释然,他毕生的煎熬终于换来了儿子名正言顺的继位。亨利四世是通过叛乱夺取了王位,有点名不正言不顺,登基几个月后就要面对贵族的谋反。之后他的国土上叛乱频繁,他这位操心劳神的国王一次次地平定祸乱。然而他挚爱的儿子哈利却放浪形骸,和一帮狐朋狗友成天混迹于酒馆妓院。老国王十分无奈,叛军和不肖之子,不知哪个才是他的心头最痛。临终前,他选择宽恕儿子,并对他寄予厚望。事实证明,亨利五世并没有辜负父亲的重托,他登基前的放浪形骸只是一种刻意的伪装,麻痹了周围虎视眈眈的政敌。在他短暂的九年统治期间,他取得了中世纪任何一位英格兰国王都未取得过的军事辉煌。

第六处:历史剧《亨利六世》第三部《3rd Henry VI》,第三幕第一场:两名穿越苏格兰森林的狩猎者发现了逃到此地的亨利六世,听到他自言自语:“我从苏格兰偷偷溜回来,怀着真诚的爱,用渴望的目光迎接自己的国土。不对,哈利,哈利,这不是你的国土了。你的王位已经被人占了,你的权杖已经被人夺走,膏抹你的香脂已经洗掉了。现在没有人再跪在你面前尊称你为凯撒了,没有人靠近你讨封赏,不,没有人向你伸诉冤屈了。因为我现在自顾不暇,哪里还能帮助他们呢?”

(KING HENRY VI

From Scotland am I stol'n, even of pure love, To greet mine own land with my wishful sight. No, Harry, Harry, 'tis no land of thine; Thy place is fill'd, thy sceptre wrung from thee, Thy balm wash'd off wherewith thou wast anointed: No bending knee will call thee Caesar now,  No humble suitors press to speak for right, No, not a man comes for redress of thee; For how can I help them, and not myself?)

第七处:历史剧《亨利六世》第三部, 第四幕第八场:亨利六世认为自己是个好国王,他说:“我并不担心这个。我的德行为我带来了好名声。我一向认真倾听他们的要求,及时处理他们的诉讼。我的怜悯是治愈他们伤口的香膏,我的温和减轻了他们的悲痛,我的同情拭干了他们汩汩的泪水。我并不渴望他们的钱财,也不对他们横征暴敛。即使他们犯了很多错误,我也不急于报复。那么他们为什么爱爱德华胜过爱我呢?不会的,爱克塞特,以德报德,狮子讨好羊羔,羊羔就会永远跟随着狮子。”

 

(KING HENRY VI

That's not my fear; my meed hath got me fame: I have not stopp'd mine ears to their demands, Nor posted off their suits with slow delays; My pity hath been balm to heal their wounds, My mildness hath allay'd their swelling griefs, My mercy dried their water-flowing tears; I have not been desirous of their wealth, Nor much oppress'd them with great subsidies. Nor forward of revenge, though they much err'd: Then why should they love Edward more than me? No, Exeter, these graces challenge grace:  And when the lion fawns upon the lamb, The lamb will never cease to follow him. )

第八处:历史剧《理查三世》(Richard III)第一幕第二场:役吏们抬着亨利六世的棺具上,安夫人(Anne, 亨利六世的儿媳妇,爱德华的妻子)送殡致哀。她说: “放下来,放下你们的荣耀负担,假如灵车四周能被荣耀笼罩的话,我正好乘此机会庄严哀悼这位不幸横死的贤德的兰开斯特。(他们放下棺木)可怜的圣君啊,遗体已冰凉,兰开斯特家族的灰烬。您那王族血液都已流尽,愿国法容许我呼唤你的鬼魂,倾听可怜的安的哀叹。我就是您遇害的儿子爱德华的妻子,他被谋害您的同一只毒手杀害。瞧,我无助的泪水仿如香脂,落在您身上那些泄漏元气的伤口破裂处。啊,诅咒那个戳开了这些伤孔的刽子手,诅咒那个狠心下手的狼心狗肺,诅咒那个放干了您的血的冷血动物。愿厄运降临在那个可恶的家伙的头上,他害死了您,令我们痛苦万分,我希望他所遭受的报应比世间的那些狼、蜘蛛、蟾蜍、虺蜮应得的结局更加残酷。愿他的孩子是一个早产的怪物,不足月便落地,丑陋狰狞的面目使期待着的母亲一见就感到恐惧。愿这个孩子一辈子不幸。愿他的妻子因丧夫而更加悲惨,比我因失去丈夫和您所承受的痛苦更多。— 来吧,请你们将这神圣的负担从圣保罗修道院送往彻特西修道院安葬吧。”

(ANNE

Set down, set down your honorable load,

If honor may be shrouded in a hearse,

Whilst I awhile obsequiously lament

Th' untimely fall of virtuous Lancaster.

 

(They set down the bier)

 

Poor key-cold figure of a holy king,

Pale ashes of the house of Lancaster,

Thou bloodless remnant of that royal blood,

Be it lawful that I invocate thy ghost

To hear the lamentations of poor Anne,

Wife to thy Edward, to thy slaughtered son,

Stabbed by the selfsame hand that made these wounds.

Lo, in these windows that let forth thy life

I pour the helpless balm of my poor eyes.

O, cursèd be the hand that made these holes;

Cursèd the heart that had the heart to do it;

Cursèd the blood that let this blood from hence.

More direful hap betide that hated wretch

That makes us wretched by the death of thee

Than I can wish to wolves, to spiders, toads,

Or any creeping venomed thing that lives.

If ever he have child, abortive be it,

Prodigious, and untimely brought to light,

Whose ugly and unnatural aspect

May fright the hopeful mother at the view,

And that be heir to his unhappiness.

If ever he have wife, let her be made

More miserable by the death of him

Than I am made by my poor lord and thee.—

Come now towards Chertsey with your holy load,

Taken from Paul’s to be interrèd there.)

我们可以把《亨利六世》第一、二、三部和《理查三世》看成四部曲,这些作品全是关于英国历史上的玫瑰战争(Wars of the Roses,1455年─1485年)的。金雀花王朝(House of Plantagenet)王室的分支 – 兰开斯特家族(House of Lancaster)和约克家族(House of York)为了争夺英格兰王位而发生了断续的内乱。“玫瑰战争”这个用语在当时并未出现,莎士比亚在编写《亨利六世》时,以两朵玫瑰被拔标志战争的开始,才成为普遍用语。此名源于两个家族的家徽,兰开斯特的红玫瑰和约克的白玫瑰。

你会在这些莎士比亚早期的戏剧里发现一些相似的元素,如冷酷无情的当权女人,软弱的国王、狡猾奸诈的小人等。这些元素陆续出现在他后来的一些戏剧角色中,如麦克白夫人(Lady Macbeth)、李尔王、伊阿古( Iago,《奥赛罗》中的人物)等。

《亨利六世》第三部中,爱德华抢了亨利六世的王位,亨利六世被监禁。获救后的亨利六世打败爱德华,重新夺回王位,爱德华遭到驱逐。随后爱德华又集结军队打败亨利,当上了国王,被关起来的亨利被未来的理查三世杀死。就连贵族们也是不忠诚的,轻易背叛主子。螳螂捕蝉,黄雀在后,《理查三世》中,理查成功篡位。这些历史性事件让观众应接不暇,应了一句“乱哄哄,你方唱罢我登场”。

可见古今中外的宫斗总是相似的。




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