许渊冲如何抄袭中诗英译的名家弗莱彻,韦利和方重?转自微信

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许渊冲如何抄袭中诗英译的名家弗莱彻,韦利和方重?

2017-07-15 stan 阅读 831

少政导语

许渊冲的英文水平,从他出版的《中诗英韵探胜》》《毛泽东诗词选前言》自传《Vanished Springs逝水流年》几本书中,可以看出其实极为蹩脚。自1984年美国教师LOUIE CREW开始,到1997年休斯顿老师和上海交大毛荣贵合作点评中国大学生英文作文,到国内二语英文写作研究最新成就都可以证明许的英文水准符合中介语的标准特征:

 

1, 词法复杂性不达标,习用高频词(休斯顿老师称之为低语域词汇),尤其不擅动词(近百分之四十的动词就是to be to have,其他动词非常简单,而且反复重复使用)。许的英文一个重要特点就是文字的浅白,中学生不用字典可以看懂。

2, 句法复杂性不达标。休斯顿老师认为中国学生基本上不习惯使用复合结构,且复合结构中的名词分句是难点。许的句式百分之九十是简单句并列句,偶有复合结构,也是中国学生都会使用的副词分句。

3, 二语作文研究强调的实词,词汇创造性,词频分布,许的写作中很难见到。休斯顿老师对这类写作说的很难听:

You sound ignorant passibly unworthy of being taken seriously.

别人一听就知道你什么都不懂,也没有任何人把你当回事。

 

许自称中诗英译他是第一人,独步天下。然而在笔者心中,一直有个谜:许的英文如此浅陋,如何攀上英美名家荟萃的中诗英译顶端?换言之,如此低劣不入流的英文,如何就撑得起中诗英译的七宝楼台?

因为一个基本常识是:要译好中诗,起码你要英文写作功力雄厚,而且在古典诗词方面有很深的写作成就,同时也还写过很多英诗。如此,你对两种诗歌传统才能心领神会,保持极大的敏感,能充分调动英诗的各种形式,韵律等资源。而许从来就没有以古诗词写作见长,也从未发表过任何英诗!而且最起码的是,他的英文根本不上档次,按中介语的定义,这是一种既非英语,也非汉语的非驴非马的中间产品!

 

许却偏偏要逆天而行。他像一个从未描过红,练过正楷,行书,就劈头盖脑提出一个所谓三美(形美意美音美)原则,直接从狂草入手,说已经超越了赵孟頫,王右军,柳公权,而且把中国一千所外语院校的英文教授全部骗到,以致骗到中国电视台,骗到国际译联给他颁发最高的"北极星"奖项!

许之所以欺世盗名如此之久,是因为国内英语学界学风极为空疏,所谓的大家都是欺世盗名的课题高手,科研达人,专注用法,语法的人不受重视,没有课题,大家趋之若鹜的都是讨巧的所谓典籍英译,传播中国文化,讲好中国故事。最为荒唐的事,许的所谓三美理论,抄袭的中诗英译,居然衍生了海量的所谓课题,硕士论文。一个如此低劣的骗子居然捧成了大师,国师,走红央视,刷频中国。学风如此,就没有什么人能从语法角度看待许的拙劣英文,进入文本,对勘找出许抄袭名家的斑斑劣迹和证据。

当然,英美名家曾在19世纪末上世纪初掀起过一个中诗英译的高潮,产生了一大批弗莱彻,韦利式的名家。只是斗换星移,英美对中诗古典部分兴趣转移了。最大的问题,这些名家的译作距今一个世纪了,国内从未出版过,或很少出版过他们的译作。这给了许这样的骗子以可乘之机,使得他可以把海外杰出的译作,做些手脚,掩人耳目,就拿来充作自己的译作!不过,此人一开始利用这种信息差,还没有搞到这种大张旗鼓的程度。只是进入21世纪,中国GDP剧增,国力大盛,主流开始大规模推动传播传统文化,许一下子变成了香饽饽,原来还有几分胆怯怕人抓住把柄,现在嗨起来把一切忘到了九天云外,豪情满怀,名片上赫然印着"书销中外六十本,诗译英法唯一人"。自诩"不是院士胜院士,遗欧赠美千首诗",翻译超过了傅雷,这就引发了笔者的兴趣。对这个现象级的人物做一点文本意义语法意义的批判,或许对国内流行的诸多学术泡沫不无冷却功效。

 

最近,笔者细读许的英文史学著作《中诗英韵探胜》(1997年版),一比对几位名家弗莱彻,罗兰,韦利,恍然大悟,许公然大段大段抄袭名家,有些地方改头换面一下,主动句改成被动句,地点状语置前改置后,特别是在1992年版,许多地方基本上懒得动一个半个标点符号,就全部占为己有,并宣布自己已经独步天下,超越了弗莱彻,韦利,真是不知天下还有羞耻二字!许常常瞧不起其他几位中诗英译者,如徐忠杰,吴钧陶,乃至杨宪益等。现在我才明白,这几位固然笨词拙句,聊甚于无,但他们有一个共同点:确实是一字一句造出来的。这当然不是文章正轨。也不是译诗之道,如19世纪菲兹杰拉德译鲁拜集,但他们毕竟没有抄袭名家!笔者费心, 列出几个例子,看许如何东拉西扯,抄袭名家,供同好们评议。

 

值得注意的是,许后来自己也觉得这样干风险太高,对许多前期抄袭太明火执仗的译文做了些小修小改,公布于众。但我们不要上当,请大家关注1992年第一版,1997年再版提供的译文。

我本人相信许译中诗可能是1949年以来中国翻译界,中国英语学界最大的闹剧。

笔者正在撰写的长文题目就是:

许渊冲如此低劣不入流的英文,如何就撑得起中诗英译的七宝楼台?

 

本文选自许渊冲《中诗英韵探胜》北大出版社 1992年第一版 97年再版

登高 杜甫 英文译本至少十家 英国外交家弗莱彻首译(1918年)

风急天高猿啸哀,渚清沙白鸟飞回。

无边落木萧萧下,不尽长江滚滚来。

万里悲秋常作客,百年老病独登台。

艰难苦恨繁霜鬓,潦倒新停浊酒杯。

 

The Heights W. J. B. Fletcher 译 1918年

The wind so fresh, the sky so high / Awake the gibbons’ wailing cry.

/ The isles clear-cut, the sand so white, / Arrest the wheeling sea-gulls’ flight.

/ Through endless space with rustling sound / The falling leaves are whirled around.

/ Beyond my ken a yeasty sea / The Yangtze’s waves are rolling free. /

From far away, in autumn drear, / I find myself a stranger here. /

With dragging years and illness wage / Lone war upon this lofty stage. /

With troubles vexed and trials sore / My locks are daily growing hoar: /

Till Time, before whose steps I pine, / Set down this failing cup of wine!

 

On the Heights ( II ) 许渊冲译

The wind so swift and sky so wide, apes wail and cry; /

Water so clear and beach so white, birds wheel and fly. /

The boundless forest sheds its leaves shower by shower; /

The endless river rolls its waves hour after hour. /

A thousand miles from home in autumn, I’m grieved at autumn’s plight; /

Ill now and then for years, ,alone I’m on this height. /

Living in times so hard, at frosted hair I pine; /

Cast down by poverty, I have to give up wine.

 

The Heights W. J. B. Fletcher 译对勘许渊冲

弗莱彻The wind so fresh, the sky so high / Awake the gibbons’ wailing cry.

/ The isles clear-cut, the sand so white, / Arrest the wheeling sea-gulls’ flight.

许渊冲 The wind so swift and sky so wide, apes wail and cry; /

Water so clear and beach so white, birds wheel and fly. /

 

弗莱彻/ Through endless space with rustling sound / The falling leaves are whirled around.

/ Beyond my ken a yeasty sea / The Yangtze’s waves are rolling free. /

许渊冲 The boundless forest sheds its leaves shower by shower; /

The endless river rolls its waves hour after hour. /

 

弗莱彻From far away, in autumn drear, / I find myself a stranger here. /

With dragging years and illness wage / Lone war upon this lofty stage. /

许渊冲 A thousand miles from home in autumn, I’m grieved at autumn’s plight; /

Ill now and then for years, ,alone I’m on this height. /

 

弗莱彻With troubles vexed and trials sore / My locks are daily growing hoar: /

Till Time, before whose steps I pine, / Set down this failing cup of wine!

许渊冲 Living in times so hard, at frosted hair I pine; /

Cast down by poverty, I have to give up wine. 许渊冲译 1984年

 

许渊冲后来出了修改版 企图掩饰第一版公然抄袭行为

On the Heights (2 ) 许渊冲译

The wind so swift, the sky so steep, sad gibbons cry; /

Water so clear and sand so white, backward birds fly. /

The boundless forest sheds its leaves shower by shower; /

The endless river rolls its waves hour after hour. /

Far from home in autumn, I’m grieved to see my plight; /

After my long illness, I climb alone this height. /

Living in hard times, at my frosted hair I pine; /

Pressed by poverty, I give up my cup of wine.

 

归园田居五首(其三) 陶潜

种豆南山下,草盛豆苗稀。晨兴理荒秽,带月荷锄归。

道狭草木长,夕露沾我衣。衣沾不足惜,但使愿无违。

 

Back to The Gardens and Fields 美国人Roland C Fang1980年译归田园居

Beneath the southern hills I sow my bees.

Their shoots are lost among the rank grass.

I rise early to clear away the weeds.

Till, hoe on shoulder, I plod home with the moon.

The paths are narrow, the green growths tall.

And the evening dews moisten my clothes.

What matters if I am wet with dew.

So long as I enjoy my heart’s content.

 

许渊冲1988年译归田园居Return to Nature (III)

I sow my beans 'neath southern hill;

Bean shoots are lost among the rank grass green.

Early I rise to clear the weeds away;

I plod home ,hoe on shoulder, with the moon ray.

The paths are narrow, tall are the growths new,

My clothes are moistened by the evening dew,

What does it matter even if I am wet,

So long as my heart’s desires can be met.

 

 

美国人Roland C Fang1980年译归田园居对勘许渊冲

罗兰Beneath the southern hills I sow my bees.

Their shoots are lost among the rank grass.

许渊冲I sow my beans 'neath southern hill;

Bean shoots are lost among the rank grass green.

 

 

罗兰I rise early to clear away the weeds.

Till, hoe on shoulder, I plod home with the moon.

许渊冲Early I rise to clear the weeds away;

I plod home ,hoe on shoulder, with the moon ray.

 

 

罗兰The paths are narrow, the green growths tall.

And the evening dews moisten my clothes.

许渊冲The paths are narrow, tall are the growths new,

My clothes are moistened by the evening dew,

 

 

罗兰What matters if I am wet with dew.

So long as I enjoy my heart’s content.

许渊冲What does it matter even if I am wet,

So long as my heart’s desires can be met.

 

 

许渊冲归田园居后来出了一个修改本 掩饰第一版公然抄袭行为

I sow my beans 'neath southern hill;

Bean shoots are lost where weeds o'ergrow.

I weed at dawn through early still;

I plod home with my moonlit hoe.

The path is narrow, grasses tall,

With evening dew my clothes wet,

To which I pay no heed at all,

If my desire can but be met.

 

饮酒(其五) 陶渊明

结庐在人境,而无车马喧。 问君何能尔?心远地自偏。 采菊东篱下,悠然见南山。山气日夕佳,飞鸟相与还。 此中有真意,欲辨已忘言。

Roland C Fang 1980年译饮酒

Among the busy haunts of men I build my hut;

But hear no noise of wheels or trampling hoofs.

You would stop to ask me how-

The distant heart creates a distant retreat.

Picking chrysanthemums under the eastern fence;

Leisurely I look up and see the southern Mountains.

The mountain air's good both day and night;

And the birds are flying homewards together..

In such things I find the truth of life;

I would tell how, but have forgotten the words.

Drinking wine(许渊冲)1988年译饮酒

Among the haunts of men I build my cot;

There’s noise of wheel and hoof, but I hear not.

How can it leave on my mind no trace?

Secluded heart creates secluded place.

i pick fence-side chrysanthemums at will;

And leisurely I see the southern hill.

Where mountain air's fresh both day and night;

And where I find home-going birds in flight.

What is the revelation at this view?

Words fail me even if I try to tell you.

 

罗兰译饮酒和许渊冲对勘

罗兰Among the busy haunts of men I build my hut;

But hear no noise of wheels or trampling hoofs.

许渊冲Among the haunts of men I build my cot;

There’s noise of wheel and hoof, but I hear not.

 

 

罗兰You would stop to ask me how-

The distant heart creates a distant retreat.

许渊冲How can it leave on my mind no trace?

Secluded heart creates secluded place.

 

 

罗兰Picking chrysanthemums under the eastern fence;

Leisurely I look up and see the southern Mountains.

许渊冲I pick fence-side chrysanthemums at will;

And leisurely I see the southern hill.

 

 

罗兰The mountain air's good both day and night;

And the birds are flying homewards together..

许渊冲Where mountain air's fresh both day and night;

And where I find home-going birds in flight.

 

 

罗兰In such things I find the truth of life;

I would tell how, but have forgotten the words.

许渊冲What is the revelation at this view?

Words fail me even if I try to tell you.

 

 

许渊冲归田园居后来出了一个修改本 掩饰第一版公然抄袭行为

In people's haunt I build my cot;

Of wheel's and hoof's noise i hear not.

How can it leave on me no trace?

Secluded heart makes secluded place.

i pick fenceside asters at will;

Carefree i see the southern hill.

The mountain air's fresh day and night;

Together birds go home in flight.

What revelation at this view?

Words fail if i try to tell you.

 

 

Drinking(杨宪益,戴乃迭)

 

Within the world of men I make my home,

Yet din of house and carriage there is none;

You ask me how this quiet is achieved-

With thoughts remote the place appears alone.

While picking asters'neath the Eastern fence

My gaze upon the Southern mountain rests;

The mountain views are good by day or night,

The birds come flying homeward to their nests.

A truth in this reflection lies concealed,

But I forget how it may be revealed.

陶渊明《责子》诗的英译

白发被两鬓,肌肤不复实。虽有五男儿,总不好纸笔。

阿舒已二八,懒惰故无匹。阿宣行志学,而不好文术。

雍端年十三,不识六与七。通子垂九龄,但觅梨与栗。

天运苟如此,且进杯中物。

 

Arthur Waley英国名家威利1918年译文

White hair covers my temples,/I am wrinkled…

And though I have five sons,/They all hate paper and brush.

A-shu is eighteen:/For laziness there is none like him.

A-hsuan does his best,/But really loathes the Fine Arts/

Yung-tuan is thirteen,/But does not know "six" from "seven".

T’ung-tzu in his ninth year/Is only concerned with things to eat.

If Heaven treats me like this,/What can I do but fill my cup?(Arthur Waley译)

 

许渊冲1988年译责子

My temples now are covered with white hairs,/My skin is wrinkled, my muscles are slack. /Although I have five sons, none of them cares/To learn to read and write in white or black./

My eldest son already is twice eight,/For laziness none can be his compeers./

My second son will never dedicate/Himself to fine arts, though at fifteen years./

My third son is thirteen, so is my fourth one,/But they don’t know how much makes six plus seven.

/Nearly nine years old is my youngest son, /Amid the pears and nuts he is in heaven./

Alas! If such be the decree divine,/What can I do but drain my cup of wine!(

 

Arthur Waley英国名家韦利1918年译文与许渊冲对勘

韦利White hair covers my temples,/I am wrinkled…

And though I have five sons,/They all hate paper and brush.

许渊冲My temples now are covered with white hairs,/My skin is wrinkled, my muscles are slack. /Although I have five sons, none of them cares/To learn to read and write in white or black./

 

韦利A-shu is eighteen:/For laziness there is none like him.

A-hsuan does his best,/But really loathes the Fine Arts/

许渊冲My eldest son already is twice eight,/For laziness none can be his compeers./

My second son will never dedicate/Himself to fine arts, though at fifteen years./

 

韦利Yung-tuan is thirteen,/But does not know "six" from "seven".

T’ung-tzu in his ninth year/Is only concerned with things to eat.

许渊冲My third son is thirteen, so is my fourth one,/But they don’t know how much makes six plus seven.

/Nearly nine years old is my youngest son, /Amid the pears and nuts he is in heaven./

 

 

韦利If Heaven treats me like this,/What can I do but fill my cup?

许渊冲Alas! If such be the decree divine,/What can I do but drain my cup of wine!

 

逢雪宿芙蓉山主人:刘长卿

日暮苍山远,天寒白屋贫。柴门闻犬吠,风雪夜归人。

Fletcher 1918译

The daylight far is dawning across the purple hill,

And white the houses of the poor with winter’s breathing chill.

The house dog’s sudden barking, which hears the wicket go,

Greets us at night returning through driving gale and snow.

Dell R.Hale 1975

Dark hills distant In the setting sun.

Thatched hut stark under wintery skies.

A dog barks at the brushwood gate.

As someone heads home this windy, snowy night.

 

许渊冲1988年译刘长卿

At sunset hillside village still seems far;

Cold and deserted the thatched cottages are.

At wicket gate a dog is heard to bark.

With wind and snow I come when night is dark.

 

长恨歌中英文对照白居易原文长恨歌

1920年英国人Herbert A Giles译散文体1973 Ines Herdan译诗体

 

W.J.B Fletcher 1918年首译长恨歌

The Lord of Han loved beauty; In love’s desire he pined.

For years within his palace Such love he could not find.

A maiden of the Yang To wedlock’s age had grown.

Brought up within the harem, And to the world unknown.

许渊冲译 1987年译 汉皇重色思倾国,御宇多年求不得。

杨家有女初长成,养在深闺人未识。

The beauty-loving monarch longed year after year

To find a beautiful lady without peer.

A maiden of the Yangs* to womanhood just grown,

In inner chambers bred, to the world was unknown.

: W.J.B.弗莱彻是全世界范围内最早出版唐诗英译专门著作的译者,其译本选译了286首唐诗,首次较为全面地将唐诗这一代表中国古典文学最高峰的文化瑰宝展现在英美读者面前,并在随后近百年内产生了持续的影响。国内外研究界对弗莱彻的译本并不陌生,但长期以来更多是从翻译技巧层面出发,将其译本与后世更为成熟的译本相比对,对其错讹或不成熟之处大加挞伐,未能正确认识和评价其首创之功。本文将在细读弗氏译本全文的基础上,返回弗莱彻所处的历史文化语境,指出弗氏对唐诗的大力推介,并分析其较为优秀的翻译技艺,及其在译介中归化和异化两种策略的结合,从而重新评价其贡献。W.J.B.弗莱彻是全世界范围内最早出版唐诗英译专门著作的译者, 在从事唐诗英译的西方译者中,活跃于20世纪初的英国外交官弗莱彻(William JohnBainbrigge Fletcher,1879—1933)是较为重要的一位。近年有学者指出,弗莱彻两本英汉对照的译著《英译唐诗选》(Gems of Chinese Verse)和《英译唐诗选续集》(More Gems of Chinese Poetry

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