【白矾还能食用吗?-- US-FDA 美国食药局 和 WHO 世卫组织 关于明矾食用的结论】

来源: 2017-07-13 11:33:46 [] [博客] [旧帖] [给我悄悄话] 本文已被阅读: 次 (62162 bytes)

 

小序


人们使用和食用含铝物品 例如 白矾

至少有1000多年以上的历史。

前些年,铝制品 含铝物品被传可能与 引发

神经功能包括 老年性痴呆 即 Alzheimer's disease 奥茨海默氏病

osteomalacia 骨质软化 和 osteoporosis 骨质疏松 等症有关

近年的深入研究基本否定了铝的上述致病性。

白矾作为 净水剂 和 食物膨发剂 与人们的日常生活最为密切相关

那么 今天 以后 我们还可以用白矾 净化水 和 炸油条吗?

余下 搜索了 美国食药局 和 世卫组织有关委员会的官方结论如下:

白矾 在正常小剂量下的食用 是安全的 !

当然,任何元素和物质的超量滥用都是有毒害的

另外 每人个体病康状态也须自我考虑在内

不言而喻,需因人而异。

那么,多少是正常的参考剂量呢? 读了下文,您就明白了。

 

 

明矾,白矾

ALUMINIUM POTASSIUM SULFATE;

POTASSIUM ALUM;

ALUMINIUM POTASSIUM SULFATE DODECAHYDRATE;

英文称呼及别称,三名同一物

又称 钾铝矾、铝明矾、钾矾、明矾、生矾,是含有结晶水的硫酸钾和硫酸铝的复盐,化学式为

KAl(SO4)2·12H2O

十二水合硫酸鋁鉀

有抗菌、收敛作用等,可用做中药,归肺、脾、肝、大肠经,

明矾还可用于制备铝盐发酵粉、油漆、鞣料、澄清剂、媒染剂、造纸、防水剂等,

还可用于食品添加剂

溶于水时,起水解作用而生成氢氧化铝胶状沉淀。

受热时失去结晶水而成白色粉末(烧明矾)。

膨化剂


炸油条(饼)或膨化食品时,若在面粉里加入小苏打后,再加入明矾,

则会加快二氧化碳的产生,大大加快了膨化的速度。这样就可以使油条(饼)

在热油锅中一下子就鼓起来,得到香脆可口的油条(饼)了。

 

用作净水剂

明矾溶于水后电离产生了Al3 ,Al3 与水电离产生的OHˉ结合生成了氢氧化铝

氢氧化铝胶体粒子带有正电荷,与带负电的泥沙胶粒相遇,彼此电荷被中和。

失去了电荷的胶粒,很快就会聚结在一起,粒子越结越大,终于沉入水底。

这样,水就变得清澈干净了。

中国最大产地为浙江温州苍南县矾山镇矾矿 储量占世界总量89% ??

 

氢氧化铝 是 治胃病的常用药,被广泛应用了至少百年。

 

危害

明矾的主要成分是十二水合硫酸铝钾,当明矾作为食品添加剂

明矾中的不是人体需要的微量元素,被人食用后,

过量摄入会影响人体对铁、钙等成分的吸收,

从而导致贫血骨质疏松等症状。

 

食品禁用

中国早在20世纪80年代就曾禁止过铝制餐具的使用及明矾作为食品添加剂,

中国国家卫计委等五部门规定,从2014年7月1日开始

馒头、发糕等面制品(除油炸面制品、挂浆用的面糊、裹粉、煎炸粉外)

不能添加含铝膨松剂硫酸铝钾硫酸铝铵,也就是俗称的“明矾”,

复合型膨松剂(即泡打粉)的主要成分也是上述两种物质。

膨化食品中,不再允许使用任何含铝食品添加剂。

???

US-FDA

Select Committee on GRAS Substances (SCOGS) Opinion: Aluminum salts

 GRAS Substances = generally regarded as safe substances

一般 总体认为是安全的物质

In the light of the foregoing, the Select Committee concludes that:

  1. There is no evidence in the available information on aluminum ammonium sulfate, aluminum potassium sulfate, aluminum sodium sulfate, aluminum sulfate, acidic sodium aluminum phosphate, basic sodium aluminum phosphate, and aluminum hydroxide that demonstrates, or suggests reasonable grounds to suspect, a hazard to the public when they are used at levels that are now current or that might reasonably be expected in the future.
  2. No consumption or biological information is available on aluminum oleate, aluminum palmitate, sodium aluminate, and sodium phosphoaluminate. However, there are no reasonable grounds to suspect a hazard to the public when they are consumed at the levels that are likely if these substances should migrate from paper and paperboard used as food packaging materials; or that might reasonably occur when they are used for this purpose in the future.

 

Aluminum salts

SCOGS Report Number: 43
NTIS Accession Number: PB262655 * 
Year of Report: 1975

GRAS Substance ID Code 21 CFR Section
Aluminum ammonium sulfate 7784-26-1 182.1127
Aluminum hydroxide 21645-51-2 182.90
Aluminum oleate (packaging) 688-37-9  
Aluminum palmitate (packaging) 555-35-1  
Aluminum potassium sulfate 7784-24-9 182.1129
Aluminum sodium sulfate 7784-28-3 182.1131
Aluminum sulfate 10043-01-3 182.1125
Sodium aluminate (packaging) 11138-49-1  
Sodium aluminum phosphate, acidic 7785-88-8 182.1781
Sodium aluminum phosphate, basic 7785-88-8 182.1781
Sodium phosphoaluminate (packaging) 11138-49-1  

 

SCOGS Opinion:

 

Aluminum and its salts are found in varying amounts in nearly all foods. In addition to the aluminum occurring

naturally in foods, man can be exposed to the aluminum added to foods, to that in aluminum antacids he may take,

and to that from aluminum cooking vessels. It has been estimated that the daily aluminum intake for man from

all dietary sources can range from 10 to 100 mg per day and that of this amount, the intake from aluminum

compounds added to food may average about 20 mg per day, about 75 percent of which is in the form of

sodium aluminum phosphate. In relation to body weight, these amounts are less than those needed to

produce toxic responses in experimental animals. It should be noted, however, that this amount may

be considerably increased by the consumption of aluminum-containing antacids.

When aluminum salts are ingested in excessive amounts, their toxicity appears to be associated with

interference in phosphorus metabolism resulting in rachitic or osteomalacic effects, kidney damage, and

interference with glucose metabolism, apparently due to interference with phosphorylating enzymes.

These effects are reduced and controlled by maintaining sufficient phosphorus in the diet and are exacerbated

by kidney dysfunction.

Clearly, dietary phosphorus level is a controlling factor, and care should be taken by patients with kidney

disease when consuming food containg high levels of aluminum salts. The high intake of phosphorus in

the American diet may provide a protective effects, especially in persons who consume large amounts of

aluminum antacid preparations that do not contains phosphorus. However, since high phosphate intakes

cannot be assured for specific individuals at all times, and since there is some evidence that persons with

kidney disease may be at risk, appropriate labeling or other means to indicate the possibility of such

hazards may warrant consideration.

The Select Committee has found no relevant toxicologic studies on aluminum oleate, aluminum palmitate,

sodium aluminate, and sodium phosphoaluminate (substances that may migrate to food from paper

packaging materials). But the nature of the inorganic compounds at least does not suggest that,

ingested in such small amounts, they would have a different effect than the other aluminum compounds

considered in this report, all of which exhibit low orders of toxicity. Even in the absence of direct evidence,

it cannot be concluded that the use of any of these compounds in packaging materials would have

any likelihood of being hazardous.

 

https://www.fda.gov/food/ingredientspackaginglabeling/gras/scogs/ucm260848.htm

 

世卫组织

 

 
 
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ALUMINIUM-CONTAINING FOOD ADDITIVES  含铝食物添加剂

General Information


Functional Class:
  • Food Additives
    • FOOD_ADDITIVE

Evaluations


Evaluation year: 2011
Comments:

The Committee established a provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) of 2 mg/kg body weight

based on a no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) of 30 mg/kg body weight per day and

application of a safety factor of 100. The PTWI applies to all aluminium compounds in food,

including food additives. The previous PTWI of 1 mg/kg body weight was withdrawn. For adults,

the estimates of mean dietary exposure to aluminium-containing food additives from

consumption of cereals and cereal-based products are up to the PTWI. Estimates of

dietary exposure of children to aluminium-containing food additives, including high

dietary exposures (e.g. 90th or 95th percentile), can exceed the PTWI by up to 2-fold.

For potassium aluminium silicate–based pearlescent pigments at the maximum proposed

use levels and using conservative estimates, anticipated dietary exposure at the highest

range of estimates is 200 times higher than the PTWI. The Committee emphasized that

whereas substances that have long half-lives and accumulate in the body are not generally

considered suitable for use as food additives,

consumption of aluminium-containing food additives would not be a health concern,

食用含铝食品添加剂 于健康无虞 provided that total dietary exposure to aluminium

is below the PTWI. The Committee recommended that provisions for food additives

containing aluminium included in the Codex General Standard for Food Additives should be

compatible with the revised

PTWI for aluminium compounds of 2 mg/kg body weight as aluminium from all sources.

(每周每公斤体重的铝化合物不超过2毫克 --我译注-- 例如:60公斤体重 每周<120毫克)

Specs Code: N, T
Report: TRS 966 JECFA 74
Specification: Compendium of food additive specifications. FAO JECFA Monographs 11, 2011.
Addendum Name: FAS 65 JECFA 74
 
 



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